Cross Compliance: Guide to Cross Compliance in England 2015 (GCCE 2015 v1)

Appendix for Animal welfare (SMR 13)


Applicable from 01/01/2013

The general rule is that you should not carry out mutilations and interventions on your animals - procedures which involve interference with the sensitive tissues or bone structure of the animal, other than for the purpose of its medical treatment. However, some procedures may be justified because of the overall welfare benefit that they provide; these are known as "permitted procedures". These are listed in Table 1 below. Some of the permitted procedures have conditions attached and these are listed in Table 2.

Permitted procedures must also be carried out:

  • in such a way as to minimise the pain and suffering it causes to the animal;
  • in hygienic conditions;
  • in accordance with good practice;
  • by a veterinary surgeon or other person who is legally allowed to carry out the relevant procedure, is experienced in carrying it out and has been trained in line with the appropriate laws.¹
Table 1: All procedures on farmed animals which are allowed in England ("permitted procedures")
Species Permitted procedures which do not have special requirements attached Permitted procedures with special requirements attached (see Table 2)
Cattle Ear clipping Castration
Ear notching Embryo collection or transfer, by a surgical method
Ear tagging Ovum transplantation, including ovum collection, by a surgical method
Freeze branding Vasectomy
Micro-chipping Dehorning
Tattooing Disbudding
Other methods of identification involving a mutilation required by law Removal of supernumerary teats (at age 3 months and over)
 
Nose ringing
Removal of supernumerary teats (at age under 3 months)
Pigs Ear clipping Castration
Ear notching Vasectomy
Ear tagging Nose ringing
Micro-chipping Tail docking
Tattooing Tooth reduction
Other methods of identification involving a mutilation required by law Tusk trimming
Birds None of the procedures listed below, apart from beak trimming, may be performed on;
  1. conventionally reared meat chickens²; or
  2. a laying hen, or a chick that is intended to become a laying hen, which is kept on an establishment with 350 or more such birds.
Micro-chipping Beak trimming of poultry
  Neck tagging
  Web notching
  Web tagging
  Wing tagging
Other methods of identification involving a mutilation required by law Desnooding of turkeys
De-toeing of domestic fowl and turkeys (under 3 days) De-toeing of domestic fowl and turkeys (at age 3 days and over)
Dubbing of domestic fowl (under 3 days) Dubbing of domestic fowl (at age 3 days and over)
Laparoscopy
Sheep Ear clipping Castration
Ear notching Vasectomy
Ear tagging Dehorning
Micro-chipping Tail docking
Tattooing
Other methods of identification involving a mutilation required by law
Disbudding
Removal of the insensitive tip of the horn
Goats Ear clipping Castration
Ear notching Vasectomy
Ear tagging Dehorning
Micro-chipping
Tattooing
Other methods of identification involving a mutilation required by law
Disbudding
Removal of the insensitive tip of the horn
Horses Freeze branding Castration
Hot branding Vasectomy
Micro-chipping
Tattooing
Other methods of identification involving a mutilation required by law
Deer Ear clipping Castration
Ear notching Vasectomy
Ear tagging Antler removal
Micro-chipping
Tattooing
Other methods of identification involving a mutilation required by law
Dogs Removal of the dew claw
Other species Ear clipping Castration
Ear notching Vasectomy
Tagging
Micro-chipping
Tattooing
Other methods of identification involving a mutilation required by law
Table 2: Conditions attached to certain permitted procedures
Procedure Age of animal at which procedure may be carried out Anaesthetic requirement for procedure at specified age Other conditions
Cattle
Castration: carried out by means of a rubber ring or other device to constrict the flow of blood to the scrotum 7 days or under Not required
Castration: carried out by means other than a rubber ring or other device to constrict the flow of blood to the scrotum Under 2 months Not required
2 months or over Required
Embryo collection or transfer, by a surgical method Any age Required
Ovum transplantation, including ovum collection, by a surgical method Any age Required
Vasectomy Any age Required
Dehorning Any age Required
Disbudding: carried out by chemical cauterisation 7 days or under Not required
Disbudding: carried out by a method other than chemical cauterisation 6 months or under Required
Removal of supernumerary teats 3 months or over Required
Pigs
Castration Under 7 days Not required The method does not involve tearing of the tissues
7 days or over Required i The method does not involve tearing of the tissues

ii Must be carried out by a veterinary surgeon


iii. Additional prolonged analgesia must be given.

Vasectomy Any age Required
Nose ringing Any age Not required The pig must not be kept continuously in an indoor husbandry system
Tail docking Under 7 days Not required i. Other measures to improve environmental conditions or management systems have first been taken to prevent tail biting but there is still evidence to show that injuries to pigs' tails by biting has occurred
ii. The method involves quick and complete severance of the tail
7 days or over Required
i. Other measures to improve environmental conditions or management systems have first been taken to prevent tail biting but there is still evidence to show that injuries to pigs' tails by biting has occurred

 

ii. Must be carried out by a veterinary surgeon


iii. The method involves quick and complete severance of the tail

iiii. Additional prolonged analgesia must be given

Tooth reduction 7 days or under Not required i. Method must consist only of the uniform reduction of corner teeth by means of grinding or clipping
ii. An intact, smooth surface is left
iii. Other measures to improve environmental conditions or management systems have been taken in order to prevent tail biting and other vices but there is still evidence that injuries to sows' teats or other pigs' ears or tails by biting has occurred
Tusk trimming Any age Not required May only be carried out where there is evidence to show it is necessary to prevent injury to other animals or for safety reasons
Birds
Beak trimming of poultry ("poultry" includes laying hens - and chicks intended to become laying hens - which are kept on establishments where there are less than 350 such birds) Any age Not required i. It is performed using a suitable instrument
ii. It is performed either:
  1. on both the lower and upper beaks and not more than one third of each is removed, or
  2. on the upper beak only and not more than one third is removed.
iii. Any subsequent haemorrhage from the beak is arrested by cauterisation.
Beak trimming of laying hens - and chicks intended to become laying hens - which are kept on establishments where there are 350 or more such birds Under 10 days
(unless where the procedure is carried out in an emergency in order to control an outbreak of feather pecking or cannibalism)
Not required i. It is performed using a suitable instrument
ii. it is performed using infra-red technology (unless where the procedure is carried out in an emergency in order to control an outbreak of feather pecking or cannibalism)

iii. it is performed either:
  1. on both the lower and upper beaks and not more than one third of each is removed, or
  2. on the upper beak only and not more than one third is removed
iv. any subsequent haemorrhage from the beak is arrested by cauterisation
v. may only be carried out in order to prevent feather pecking or cannibalism
vi. may only be carried out by a person who has been provided with suitable and sufficient information, instruction and training so that they are qualified to perform the procedure
Beak trimming of conventionally reared meat chickens Under 10 days Not required i. It is performed using a suitable instrument

ii. it is performed either:

a. on both the lower and upper beaks and not more than one third of each is removed, or

b. on the upper beak only and not more than one third is removed

iii. any subsequent haemorrhage from the beak is arrested by cauterisation

iv. may only be carried out in order to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism

v. may only be carried out by a person who has been provided with suitable and sufficient information, instruction and training so that they are qualified to perform the procedure

vi. may only be carried out following a consultation and on the advice of a veterinarian.

Neck tagging of farmed ducks 3 days or under Not required To be carried out only for the purposes of a breed improvement programme
Web notching of farmed ducks 3 days or under Not required To be carried out only for the purposes of a breed improvement programme
Web tagging of farmed birds Any age Not required To be carried out only for the purposes of breed
improvement programmes or testing for the presence of disease
Wing tagging of farmed bird Any age Not required To be carried out only for the purposes of breed
improvement programmes or testing for the presence of disease
Desnooding of turkeys 21 days or under Not required To be carried out either by manual pinching-out or with a suitable instrument.
De-toeing of domestic fowl and turkeys 3 days or over Required To be carried out only if considered necessary by a veterinary surgeon
Dubbing of domestic fowl 3 days or over Required It shall be carried out only if considered necessary by a veterinary surgeon
Laparoscopy Any age Required
Sheep
Castration: carried out by means of a rubber ring or other device to constrict the flow of blood to the scrotum 7 days or under Not required  
Castration: carried out by means other than a rubber ring or other device to constrict the flow of blood to the scrotum Under 3 months Not required
3 months or over Required
Vasectomy Any age Required
Dehorning Any age Required
Tail docking: carried out by means of a rubber ring or other device to constrict the flow of blood to the tail 7 days or under Not required Sufficient tail is retained to cover the vulva of a female sheep or the anus of a male sheep.
Tail docking: carried out other than by means of a rubber ring or other device to constrict the flow of blood to the tail Any age Required Sufficient tail is retained to cover the vulva of a female sheep or the anus of a male sheep.
Goats
Castration: carried out by means of a rubber ring or other device to constrict the flow of blood to the scrotum 7 days or under Not required
Castration: carried out by means other than a rubber ring or other device to constrict the flow of blood to the scrotum Under 2 months Not required
2 months or over Required
Vasectomy Any age Required
Dehorning Any age Required
Horses
Castration Any age Required
Vasectomy Any age Required
Deer
Castration Any age Required
Vasectomy Any age Required
Removal of antlers that are not in velvet Any age Not required i. The deer are farmed deer [or, where they are not farmed deer, are kept on land in the same manner as if they were farmed deer]
ii. Only the non-sensitive part of the antler is removed
Other species
Castration Any age Required
Vasectomy Any age Required
  1. It should be noted that the fact that a procedure is a "permitted procedure" under the Mutilations Regulations does not, of itself, mean that it can be carried out by people who are not veterinary surgeons. The Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966 prohibits the practice of veterinary surgery by people who are not registered veterinary surgeons or veterinary practitioners. If a procedure falls within the definition of "veterinary surgery" under the Act and it is not covered by one of the exemptions listed in the Act or by an "exemption order" (made by statutory instrument), that procedure may only be performed by those listed on the register of veterinary surgeons or the supplementary veterinary register, regardless of its status under the Mutilations Regulations.
  2. “conventionally reared meat chicken” means an animal of the species Gallus gallus that is kept for meat production, other than one—
    (a) that is on a holding with fewer than 500 such animals or with only breeding stocks of such animals;
    (b) in relation to which the term “Extensive indoor (barn reared)”, “Free range”, “Traditional free range” or “Free range – total freedom” can be used within the meaning of point (b), (c), (d) or (e) of Annex V to Commission Regulation (EC) No 543/2008 laying down detailed rules for the application of Regulation (EC) No 1234/2007 as regards the marketing standards for poultrymeat(a);
    (c) that is organically reared in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91(b);”.
     
ADLib logo Content provided by the Agricultural Document Library
© University of Hertfordshire, 2011