British Standards Relevant to Agriculture

British Standard Summaries

BS5410:2 1978
Code of Practice for Oil Firing
Part 2: Installations of 45 kW & above Output Capacity for Space Heating, Hot Water & Steam Supply Purposes

The text herein is not a a full reproduction of the British Standard. It is summary based upon interpretation of the original text and not intended as a replacement for the full text. It should be used for general guidance only.

Minimum recommendations for the installation of all types of oil burning equipment are required so that equipment manufacturers, suppliers, installers and users may have a common basis on which to work. This is a summary of the British Standard which is presented as a Code of Practice but it should be considered as specification requirements. 

Part 2 of BS5410 covers oil burning installations of 45 kW and greater output capacity for space heating, hot water and steam supply purposes and oil tanks of any capacity associated with such systems.

Section 3: Application of oil burners

  • The full Standard provides detailed guidance on choice of grade of fuel oil, the size of plant and statutory requirements which may be imposed by local authorities.
  • The full Standard also advises on plant operation schedules and the capital cost of equipment and plant.


  • Efficient boiler operation depends upon good design and equipment choice.
  • The full Standard provides a code classification system for boilers.
  • Boiler size should be selected to match load requirements. Special attention should be given to the summer load.
  • Standby plant should be considered.
  • Chimney and flue gas ducts should be designed to comply with anti-pollution regulations.
  • The full Standard advises on the requirements for converting to oil firing and replacement of oil burning equipment.
  • Boilers should be isolated away from combustible materials or flammable vapours.

Warm air heaters

  • The Standard is concerned with warm air heaters that are self-contained and used for heating commercial and industrial premises.
  • It is unlikely that converting from warm air heating to oil fired heating would be economically prudent. Consult the manufacturers.
  • Heaters should be isolated away from combustible materials or flammable vapours.
  • Heaters should be periodically maintained in accordance with manufacturers instructions.

Section 4: Methods of combustion air supply, draught production and control

  • The required combustion air should be induced by natural chimney draught, mechanically by an induced draught fan or by a combination of both approaches.
  • The full Standard provides information on induced and forced draughts.
  • It also includes details regarding the conversion of soil fuel to oil firing.

Section 5: Selection of burners

  • Burner selection and its control method will depend upon the type of plant, the class of  oil, the plant utilisation pattern, the ability for it to satisfy environmental regulations and the associated capital and running costs.
  • Types of burners are listed in BS 799:4 and BS EN 267. This Standard summarises the operating principles of pressure-jet burners and two-fluid type burners,
  • Control methods may be: hand controlled, flame monitored hand-controlled, partly automated, flame-monitored and partly automated or fully automated.
  • The maximum output of the burner has to be sufficient to meet the maximum rating of the boiler or heater.

Section 6: Oil tanks and equipment

  • Storage tanks may be constructed from: carbon steel, pressed steel sectional, medium density polyethylene, glass reinforced plastic or concrete with and impervious oil proof lining.
  • The net capacity of the tank should be the greater of:
    • 3 weeks oil supply at maximum rate of consumption or
    • 2 weeks supply at maximum rate of consumption plus the usual quantity ordered for one delivery.
  • It is preferable to use more than one tank. This permits settlement time following delivery, back-up in case of failure and flexibility to take tanks out of service for cleaning and maintenance.
  • It is necessary to provide facilities for measuring the quantity of oil in the tank.
  • Precautions against over-filling must be installed.
  • Filling pipes and connections should be in accordance with BS799:5. Vent pipes and drain valves must also comply with this Standard.
  • Tank supports and foundations should be designed to accept the loading of the full tank. The bearing capacity of the soil should be considered.
  • Periodic painting and cleaning will be required in accordance with BS799:5. External surfaces should treated against rusting.
  • The full Standard provides guidance on service tanks, rooftop tanks.
  • Structural and general fire precautions must be taken.

Section 7: Oil handling systems from storage tank to burner

  • This section relates to the handling of oil fuel between the outlet of the storage tank and the inlet to the oil burning equipment.
  • Handlings systems must be able to meet the necessary conditions including pressure, rate of flow, temperature and viscosity.
  • The full Standard discusses distillate oil fuel systems, heated oil fuel systems, and roof-top systems
  • The most economical size of pipeline should be chosen consistent with the boiler requirements regarding flow rate etc.
  • Materials and joints must comply with BS799:4.
  • The complete pipework installation should be hydralically tested after erection.
  • Oil, gas, steam and water piping should be painted in distinctive colours to aid identification.

Section 8: Design & construction of accomodation for oil-fired installations

  • Recommendations for safety and good engineering practices are given.
  • Buildings are divided into two groups (a) large buildings which includes those higher than 30m and those higher than 24m and an area exceeding  930 m2 on any floor and those used for trade or manufacturer with an cubic content exceeding 7000 m2 (b) all other buildings.


  • Oil fired boilers and associated equipment should be installed in a suitably constructed boiler room or boiler house.
  • Boiler rooms and boiler houses have detailed specifications regarding floors, foundations, waterproof membranes, air cooling, bases and air ducting.
  • An emergency means of escape must be provided from boiler rooms and houses.
  • Ventilation should be provided in boiler rooms and houses.
  • Special specifications are stated for smoke outlets.
  • Automatic fire extinguishers or foam inlet may be desirable or demanded by the Local fire Authority.
  • The boiler room or house must be well lit and an electricity supply provided.

Warm air heaters

  • The extent of fire protection required will be determined by the heat output of the appliance, its design, construction and siting relative to the risks and escape routes provided.
  • Oil fired air heaters are not permitted in underground garages.
  • Automatic fire extinguishers or foam inlet may be desirable or demanded by the Local fire Authority.
  • The accomodation must be well lit and an electricity supply provided.

Oil storage and service tanks

  • Tanks should, ideally, be situated externally to the building they serve.
  • Fire resistant tank chambers or screen walls are usually required.
  • Steel tanks buried in the ground should be constructed in accordance with BS799-5 but a thicker plate may be desirable. Consideration of loadings and the local water table must be made.
  • Steel tanks must be protected against corrosion.
  • Where tank chambers are located inside a building, emergency means of escape must be provided.
  • Sufficient space should be provided in the tank chamber to permit access to tank mountings, fitting and joints.
  • Tank chambers must be well ventilated.
  • Automatic fire extinguishers or foam inlet may be desirable or demanded by the Local fire Authority.
  • Tank chambers must be well lit and an electricity supply provided.

Section 9: Chimney and flue systems

  • Specifications for chimney heights are given in the full Standard.
  • Each boiler should have its own chimney or flue.
  • Internal surfaces should be as smooth as possible to minimise gas friction.
  • If lightening conductors are fitted adequate earthing must be provided.
  • Clean-out access should be provided for chimneys and flue ducts.
  • Flue ducts should be as straight as possible.
  • Draught control may be required.

Section 10: Electrical equipment

  • All electrical components should be marked with their voltage, supply frequency, number of phases and current consumption.
  • They should be protected from hot gases.
  • Detailed specifications for wiring is given in the full Standard.
  • Detailed specifications for motors and motor control gear is given in the full Standard.

Section 11: Instrumentation

  • Instrumentation is essential for flue gas analysis, flue gas temperature, ambient temperature, Bacharach smoke number, draught/combustion pressure and oil input rate.
  • On larger plants instrumentation for steam/hot water flowrate, steam pressure and temperature, feed-water temperature and hot water flow / return temperature may also be required.
  • instrumentation for smoke density, oil temperature and pressure at significant points and oil tank contents may also be useful.

Section 12: Commissioning

  • Correct commissioning is important.
  • Full details of processes is given in the full Standard.
  • Performance tests should be incorporated.
  • Following commissioning the plant and equipment can be passed to the customer.

Section 13: Maintenance

  • Installation should have provided access to all parts of the plant and equipment.
  • Maintenance instructions should be provided by the suppliers/Installers.
  • Routine maintenance contracts with emergency services should be arranged.

Section 14: Safety provisions

  • Attention must be given to cut-off valves, oil pressure release valves and route of oil lines in accordance with the full Standard.
  • Fire valves should be installed.
  • Combustible waste should not accumulate close to boilers or heaters or associated equipment.
  • Protection and proceedures should be in place against combustion explosions.
  • Fire prevention details should be discussed with the local fire authority.

A British Standard nor this summary does not, necessarily, include all the necessary information for correct implementation of the Standard to any specific application. This is purely the responsibility of the user. Standards are updated by either amendment or revision. Users should ensure that they are using the latest version.

The full text of this Standard can be obtained from the British Standard Institution

ADLib logo Content provided by the Agricultural Document Library
© University of Hertfordshire, 2011